Shrinking computer hardware, ENIAC (left) and successors. The smallest circuit board is from the BRLESC-I.(U.S. Army Photo 163-12-62, via Wikimedia Commons.) |

Enrico Fermi (1901-1954).This is my favorite photo of Fermi. He might be smiling because he's just written an incorrect expression for α, the fine-structure constant.In cgs units, it would be e.^{2}/(ħc)(Smithsonian Institution photograph, via Wikimedia Commons.) |

"My collaborators and I have shown that interactions of triads, quartets, and quintets are reversible; in other words, they do not bring the FPU system closer to thermal equilibrium. However, the interaction of waves in sixtets does lead to irreversible transfer of energy. It takes the cooperation of six different waves to produce an interaction that is irreversible and, because of that, the process is extremely weak and very slow. That is why it takes so long to approach thermal equilibrium for the FPU system."[9]

Pretty picture.This is a visualization of the resonance manifold in the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem. (RPI image by Yuri Lvov.) |

- Eugene P. Wigner, "The unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences," Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 13, no. 1 (February 1960), doi:10.1002/cpa.3160130102, pp. 1-14. An online transcription is available, here, and a PDF file is available here.
- Manhattan Project History - Evolving from Calculators to Computers, The Manhattan Project Heritage Preservation Association, Inc..
- Richard Feynman, "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman! (Adventures of a Curious Character)," W. W. Norton & Company, April 17, 1997, 352 pp. (via Amazon)
- Computing and the Manhattan Project, Atomic Heritage Foundation.
- N. Metropolis, A. W. Rosenbluth, M. N. Rosenbluth, A. H. Teller, and E. Teller, "Equation of State Calculations by Fast Computing Machines," Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 21, no. 6 (1953), pp.1087-1092. For a review of this paper, see its Wikipedia page. John R. Pasta (1918 – June 5, 1981), Chess Programming at Wikispaces.
- Thierry Dauxois, "Fermi, Pasta, Ulam, and a mysterious lady," Physics Today, January, 2008, pp. 55-57 (PDF File).
- J.A.N. Lee, "Computer Pioneers - John R. Pasta," IEEE Computer Society.
- Miguel Onorato, Lara Vozella, Davide Proment, and Yuri V. Lvov, "Route to thermalization in the α-Fermi–Pasta–Ulam system," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., Published online before print, March 24, 2015, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1404397112
- Mary L. Martialay, "A Mathematical Explanation for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam System Problem First Proposed in 1953," Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Press Release, March 23, 2015.
- UEA mathematician solves 60-year-old problem, University of East Anglia Press Release, March 23, 2015.