Isaac Newton ((1642-1727, left) and Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749-1827, right). (Source images, left, Sir Godfrey Kneller's 1689 Portrait of Isaac Newton; and, right, Sophie Feytaud's 1842 Portrait of Pierre-Simon Laplace, via Wikimedia Commons. |

"Every physical quantity, every it, derives its ultimate significance from bits, binary yes-or-no indications"[4].Wheeler's had a strong interpretation of "it from bit." In his 1998 autobiography,[5] "Geons, Black Holes, & Quantum Foam (W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1998), co-authored with Kenneth W. Ford, he imagined such bits to be "quanta of reality,"

"I suggest that we may never understand this strange thing, the quantum, until we understand how information may underlie reality. Information may not be just what we 'learn' about the world.Wheeler continues with an example of photon absorption. Until the photon is measured by absorption, it has no reality for us. By that measurement, we get another bit of information about the universe; but, also, "...that bit of information determines the structure of one small part of the world. It ‘creates’ the reality of the time and place of that photon's interaction."[5] binary encoding of information is robust against corruption and misinterpretation. Placing information into "0" and "1" bins allows a sharp demarcation of data with little chance of misinterpretation; or, no chance of misinterpretation at the quantum level. Waxing philosophical, Foschini adds the following,It may be what 'makes' the world.[5] (My emphasis)

"It is the human being that, by assigning a meaning and creating a tongue with the signs so obtained, creates the it from bit... One can be satisfied for thinking that it is a gift (e.g. Wigner) or can try to understand how this happen."The gift about which Foschini writes is the one in Eugene Wigner's May 11, 1959, Richard Courant lecture in mathematical sciences at New York University, "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences."[6] As the title indicates, it seems so easy to express the laws of physics using mathematical equations. Physicist, Max Tegmark, argues that this is true because the physical world is structured mathematically, and we discover this bit by bit. At times, our mathematics will only approximate the real mathematics of the universe, but it's interesting how we always find a better mathematical way when our first approximations are found to be insufficient.

- Stephen Wolfram, "A New Kind of Science," Wolfram Media, Inc., May 14, 2002. ISBN 1-57955-008-8.
- Ah, the joys of computer entrepreneurship. As documented in the article, Did the Universe Just Happen? by Robert Wright in the April, 1988, Atlantic Monthly, Fredkin once owned his own island. This 125 acre island, known as Moskito Island, is now owned by Sir Richard Branson. The sale price in 2007 was about $20 million.
- Luigi Foschini, "Where the "it from bit" come from?" arXiv Preprint Server, June 3, 2013.
- J. A. Wheeler, "Information, physics, quantum: the search for links," Proceedings III International Symposium on Foundations of Quantum Mechanics, Tokyo, 1989, p. 354-368.
- John Archibald Wheeler and Kenneth W. Ford, "Geons, Black Holes, & Quantum Foam," W.W. Norton & Co., New York, 1998.
- Eugene P. Wigner, "The unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences," Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, vol. 13, no. 1 (February 1960), doi:10.1002/cpa.3160130102, pp. 1-14. PDF file available, here.