Moore's Law.Click for larger view. (Image by W.G. Simon, via Wikimedia Commons). |

kT ln(2)where k is Boltzmann's constant, and T is the absolute temperature. The natural logarithm of two follows from the binary nature of the operation. At room temperature, kT is 4.11 x 10

- Gordon E. Moore, "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits," Electronics, vol. 38, no. 8 (April 19, 1965), PDF File compliments of Intel Corporation.
- Erich Strohmaier, "Japan Reclaims Top Ranking on Latest TOP500 List of World's Supercomputers," TOP500 Press Release, June 16, 2011. .
- Jonathan Koomey, Stephen Berard, Marla Sanchez and Henry Wong, "Implications of Historical Trends in the Electrical Efficiency of Computing," IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, vol. 33, no. 3 (July-September 2011), pp. 46-54.
- Kate Greene, "A New and Improved Moore's Law," Technology Review, September 12, 2011.
- R. Landauer, "Irreversibility and heat generation in the computing process," IBM Journal of Research and Development, vol. 5, no. 3 (July 1961), pp. 183-191. A PDF copy is available, here.